Counseling Techniques

Forms of Communication


Communication and Counseling

Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors. Published October 2009.

Being able to effectively communicate is a counselor’s intrinsic role. The counselor’s job during a session is to provide support to clients, and it commences during the client’s initial assessment. In most cases, the client’s emotional state will become a barrier for him or her to effectively communicate with the counselor – at this point, it is the time to observe the client’s body language in order to recognize what is occurring ‘between the lines’. It is not an assumption game, but rather an analysis based on behavioral tendencies.

MIT Sloan Communication Program Teaching Note

JoAnne Yates. MIT OpenCourseWare. Published Fall 2010.

This teaching note describes active listening, a comprehensive approach to the task of listening. It also describes reflective responses, a particular responding technique that is based upon Western concepts of the role of feelings in interpersonal relationships.

Effective Communication

Counseling and Psychological Services, Division of Student Affairs, San Jose State University.

There are many variables involved in creating long-lasting, mutually respectful peer relationships. Effective communication can enhance your interpersonal relationships by correcting misunderstandings.

Reflective Listening Information and Resources 

Center for Building a Culture of Empathy 

Be like a mirror – reflect back what you think, feel and sense that the speaker is saying and feeling. Work to clear the mirror so that you can reflect more clearly.

15 Common Defense Mechanisms

John M. Grohol, PsyD.

Defense mechanisms are one way of looking at how people distance themselves from a full awareness of unpleasant thoughts, feelings and behaviors.


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